University of Perugia
SMAArt has a laboratory characterised by both bench-top and mobile instrumentation, including spectroscopic and imaging techniques, for the research on art materials and on origin and mechanisms of their possible alterations in specific environments.
In particular, the mobile laboratory MOLAB consists of a unique collection of portable equipments, suitable for non-invasive in-situ measurements (no sampling and no contact) on monuments or on precious objects that cannot be moved from their usual location due to safety or security reasons.
Chemistry and Material Sciences
Access is offered to: (a) portable instrumentation for non-invasive in-situ measurements, directly at the surface of the examined work of art, avoiding any sampling or movement of the object, i.e. maintaining the integrity of the examined object and eliminating risks and costs related to transportation; (b) bench-top analytical instrumentation and relative database on spectral response of pigments/binders/colorants in different contexts, for the interpretation of results. Through the exploitation of non-invasive analytical facilities for in-situ examinations and the laboratory instrumentation and database, several measurements can be carried out, including those devoted to: 1- clarification of art-historical questions on execution techniques; 2- assessment of state of conservation; 3- establishment of best conditions to avoid or slow down alterations (preventive conservation); 4- monitoring of materials during and after innovative restoration treatments; 5- assessing risk(s). Access requests are selected on the basis of scientific quality and originality of the proposal.
- mid-FT-IR spectrometer: globar source; chalcogenide fiber optics; MCT detector; spectral range 7000-900 cm-1; spectral resolution 4 cm-1; spatial resolution 12 mm2; weight: 35 kg. - near-FT-IR spectrometer: halogen lamp; silica glass fiber optics; InGAs detector; spectral range 12500-4000 cm-1, spectral resolution 4 cm-1 ; spatial resolution 12 mm2; weight 35 kg. - Raman spectrometer: Nd:YAG (532 nm) and diode(785 nm) lasers; CCD detector; option for quartz fiber optics or microscopic probe (10, 25, 50 x); spectral range 250-2000 cm-1; spectral resolution 4-10 cm-1; spatial resolution c. 0.1 mm2; weight 20 kg. - X-ray fluorescence spectrometer: EIS s.r.l. P/N 9910; W anode; Peltier-cooled Si drift detector; spectral range: 1,7-30 keV; spectral resolution 130 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV; spatial resolution 10 mm2; weight 20 kg. - UV-Vis reflectance spectrophotometer: deuterium-halogen lamp; CCD; quartz fiber optics; spectral range 250-850 nm, spectral resolution 2nm; spatial resolution 10 mm2; weight 10 kg. - UV-Vis fluorescence emission spectrophotometer: excitation by laser lines at 266, 445, and 640 nm or by Xe lamp followed by monochromator; CCD detector; quartz fiber optics; spectral range 200-1100 nm, spectral resolution 10 nm; spatial resolution 2 mm2; weight 15 kg. - Time correlation single-photon counting for fluorescence lifetime measurements: excitation pulse by interchangeable LED (455 nm, nanosecond time scale) and diode lasers (375, 650 nm, picosecond time scale); silica fused fiber optic; photocatode detector; spectral range 350-850 nm; temporal resolution 100 ps; spatial resolution 12 mm2 ; weight 35 kg. - and others.
- micro-Raman: JASCO Europe NRS 3100 double-grating spectrophotometer equipped with Ar ion (488 and 514.5 nm) and diode (785 nm) lasers; autofocus stage for mapping analysis. - micro-FT-IR: JASCO Europe 4100 spectrometer, equipped with a IMV-4000 optical microscope (diamond ATR and 16x,32x Cassegrain objectives) and 16 x linear array MCT detector for line-scan imaging; DLATGS detector.- UV-vis reflection spectroscopy: Jasco V-570 double-beam/mono-grating spectrophotometer; deuterium–halogen lamp; ILN-472 integrating sphere; photomultiplier tube and PbS photoconductive cell. - GC-MS: Agilent Technologies mod. 5973 with quadrupole mass filter MSD5973N. - ICP-AES: THERMO-OPTEC spectrometer.