Estonian Environmental Observatory (KKobs)
Core Data
Hosting Legal Entity
University of Tartu
Vanemuise 46, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Tartu, PO: 51014 (Estonia)
Type Of RI
Coordinating Country
Current Status:
Operational since 2015
Scientific Description
Mission and objectives
The Environmental Observatory is an intergrated network of research and monitoring stations for atmosphere, biosphere, marine and freshwater measurements, covering all main ecosystems in the country. It aims to develop a intergrated system for exchanging data and measurements between various stations and biotopes, thus enchancing interdistliplinary research and a knowledge-based approach to environment-related policy-making. The infrastructure includes a Station for Measuring Air and Ecosystem Relations (SMEAR), a Free Air Humidity Manipulating (FAHM) station, an automated marine current measurement boi in the Finnish Gulf, coastal and freshwater measuring stations and experimental biodiversity research stations.The geoinformatics laboratory - an integral part of the infrastructure - standardizes and visualizes geographical data from all the Environmental Observatory stations.

RI Keywords
Atmosphere-biosphere relations, Geomatics, Biodiversity information, Environmental monitoring, Data networks, Freshwater science, Research stations, Marine Research
RI Category
Atmospheric Measurement Facilities
Environmental Management Infrastructures
Earth Observation satellites
In situ Earth Observatories
In situ Marine/Freshwater Observatories
Earth, Ocean, Marine, Freshwater, and Atmosphere Data Centres
Scientific Domain
Earth and Environmental Sciences
ESFRI Domain
Sample preparation and handling

Taxonomic collections preservation, processing and analysing service.

Meteorological measurements

Basic and complex temperature, wind, humidity, air pressure, water vapour and several gradients.

Photosynthesis measurements

Measuring of gas exchange and CO2 assimilation in stems (FAHM station).

Atmosphere-biosphere gas measurements

Measuring Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchanges of Biologically Related Gases with Micrometeorological Methods.

Experimental field laboratorys and equipment

Field laboratorys for various biological experiments and measuring.

Physical oceanography

Measuring of temperature, salinity and density and circulation of heat and organic matter.

Boats and marine equipment

Devices for measuring sea and lakes bioproduction characteristics, currents, temperature and visibility changes.

Remote sensing

Using radar and LIDAR, scanning of landscape and coastal areas.

GHG measurements

CO2, ch4, h2o gas measurements in SMEAR station.

Terrestrial laser skanner

TLS technology is based on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and is also referred to as ground-based LiDAR or tripod LiDAR. It is an active imaging system whereby laser pulses are emitted by the scanner and observables include the range and intensity of pulse returns reflected by the surface or object being scanned. Some instruments are capable of measuring multiple returns or even the full waveform of the reflected pulse.

Laser tacheometer, digital levelling instrument

Digital tachometer utilising laser or contact for measuring rotational and linear speed. Levelling is the measurement of geodetic height.

Surface- and ground water indicators

Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring Instrumentation.

Eddy covariance systems (portable and stationary)

Eddy covariance technique stations to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers.

Ultrasonic anemometer

Ultrasonic anemometer - device for measuring the short-term (about 0.1 - 100 seconds) fluctuations of wind and air temperature. Such measurements are needed to quantify the heat and momentum fluxes in the atmosphere.

Laboratory LED lightening system

LED lightening for FAHM experiments support.

Nanometer aerosol and Air Ion Spectrometer

a spectrometer for the measurement of cluster ion and nanometer aerosol size distributions.

GIS stations

A geographic information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data.

Radon monitor, Geiger-Müller gamma-radiation detector

Geiger-Muller counters are used to screen various environmental samples, to measure body fluid activity and to conduct radiation surveys.

Different types of sensors

Ex: sap flow sensors are used to estimate water flux in tree stems and branches, to calculate whole tree water use and/or transpiration rate.

Field data loggers

A data logger (also datalogger or data recorder) is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to location either with a built in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors.

Digital gravimeter

A gravimeter is an instrument used in gravimetry for measuring the local gravitational field of the Earth.


An instrument for the real time measurement of optical absortion by aerosol particles.

Multiplexer device and shoot chambers

Installed to different treatments of field experiment, are programmed to close periodically and monitore daily courses of gas exchange in tree shoots. The multiplexer system connects air flow from different chambers in certain order to gas analyser (to measure CO2, water vapor and NOx concentrations and calculate uptake or emission of gases from shoots).

Additional Data
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