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Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS)
Identification
Hosting Legal Entity
Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Location
Assergi L'Aquila, PO: 67010, Italy (Italy)
Structure
Type Of RI
Single-sited
Coordinating Country
Italy
Status
Status
Current Status:
Operational since 1987
Scientific Description
The Gran Sasso Laboratory is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world.Located in Italy between L’Aquila and Teramo - about 120 km far from Rome - the underground structures are on one side of the highway tunnel which crosses the Gran Sasso massif, and consist of three huge experimental halls (each one approximately 100 m long, 20 m large and 18 m high) linked by service tunnels, for a total volume of 180.000 m3 and a surface of 18.000 m2. The 1400 meter-rock thickness above provides a cosmic ray flux reduction by one million times.Outside, an area of more than 23 acres belonging to a National Park of Gran Sasso hosts the external laboratories and facilities, the Computing Centre, the Directorate and various Offices. The on site personnel of LNGS is of the order of 110 people; besides them, more than 950 scientists from 29 different Countries taking part in the LNGS experimental activities constitute its large international scientific community. The present activities of LNGS can be grouped into the following main lines of research: Dark matter searches, Neutrino physics, Nuclear Astrophysics, Associate Sciences including Environmental Radioactivity for Earth Sciences, Geophysics, Fundamental Physics, Biology.

RI Keywords
Long base line neutrino beams, Astroparticle physics, Biology, Nuclear astrophysics, Solar neutrinos, Neutrino oscillations, Large liquid argon Time projection chambers, Fundamental physics, Neutrino less double beta decay, Environmental radioactivity, Supernovae neutrinos, Theory physics, Dark matter, Innovative detectors, Ultra-low-background detectors, Underground laboratory, Earth sciences, Cosmic rays, Geo-antineutrinos, Ultra-low-background counting facility, Atmospheric neutrinos
Classifications
RI Category
Solid Earth Observatories, including Seismological Monitoring Stations
Underground Laboratories
High Energy Physics Facilities
Research Data Service Facilities
Nuclear Research Facilities
In situ Earth Observatories
Astro-particle and neutrino detectors and observatories
Cell Culture Facilities
Scientific Domain
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Physics, Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mathematics
ESFRI Domain
Physical Sciences and Engineering
Services
Dark Matter Search

Direct detection of DM aiming to observe the scattering of DM particles off target nuclei can only be performed in underground laboratories. LNGS provide general and specialized services to large and complex experiments hunting for dark matter candidates through their direct detection, each based on a different technology: DAMA/LIBRA, XENON, CRESST, DARK SIDE-50.

Geophysics

LNGS hosts and provide general services to the experiment GIGS: The experiment consists of a laser interferometer operating inside the LNGS area since 1994 and measuring permanent and transient strain episodes and monitoring the micro seismic movements of the Gran Sasso fault.

Nuclear Astrophysics

LNGS provide general and specialized services to the LUNA experiment aimed to the measurement of thermonuclear fusion cross sections relevant for stellar nucleosynthesis. LNGS is the only underground laboratory in the world hosting such a relevant scientific program. A new project LUNA MV has been recently funded by the Research ministry.

Biology

LNGS hosts and provide general services to the experiment PULEX. The experiment aims at understanding if environmental radiation has a permanent influence on the biochemistry of living matter.

Neutrino Physics

LNGS provide general and specialized services to large and complex experiments in the field of the neutrino physics. The present scientific program includes: Solar Neutrinos, Geo-antineutrinos, Neutrino Oscillations, Long Base Line Neutrino Beams, Atmospheric Neutrinos, Supernovae Neutrinos, Neutrino less Double Beta Decay;various neutrino sources, both natural (the Sun, stars and the Earth) and artificial (particle accelerators) are used. The experiments are: BOREXINO, OPERA, ICARUS, LVD, GERDA, CUORE, LUCIFER, COBRA.

Environmental Radioactivity for earth sciences

LNGS provide general and specialized services to the ERMES experiment. ERMES studies cosmogenic and primordial radionuclides in solid and fluid matrix inside LNGS by means of HPGe gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A new project ERMES WORLD has been recently funded by the Research ministry.

Equipment
LARGE UNDERGROUND LABORATORY

The Gran Sasso underground Laboratory (Volume: 180000 m3 , Surface: 18000 m2) hosts large and complex detectors used in the fields: Dark matter searches, Neutrino physics, Nuclear Astrophysics and Associate Sciences including Environmental Radioactivity for Earth Sciences, Geophysics, Fundamental Physics, Biology. Many different detectors are used: Liquid and plastic scintillators, Noble liquid TPC, Nuclear Emulsions, ultra high-purity germanium detectors, TeO2 Bolometer detectors, scintillating bolometers, extremely radio-pure NaI(Tl) scintillators.Moreover the Laboratory hosts a ultra-low-counting facility and clean rooms.The Laboratory is equipped with all technical and safety plants required in order to run large and complex experiments and to ensure proper working conditions.The Gran sasso external laboratories host: the compunting center, the mechanical, electronic and chemical workshops, ICPMS, clean rooms, library, guest houses, canteen.

Collaborations
Networks
Astroparticle Physics European Coordination ( ApPEC )
Date of last update: 14/03/2017
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